By Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years
2 It will suffice here to observe that, as all the energies and resources of the Spanish states were needed for their internecine wars and the • See below, chapter II, section A. Cb. I '• WESTERN EUROPE ON THE EYE OF THE CRUSADES Zl struggle against the Moslems, they took part neither in the affairs of Europe as a whole nor in the early crusades to the Holy Land. The eleventh century was a high point in the history of the Scandinavian states, but, except for the conquest of England by king Swein of Denmark and Canute his son, they had little to do with the rest of western Europe.
At the head stood the Capetian king, who was suzerain of the great lords of the land. Below him came a group of feudal potentates who may best be described as feudal princes -the men whom a later age called the "peers of France". According to the theory developed in the twelfth century, there were six lay peers - the count of Flanders, the duke of Normandy, the count of Champagne, the duke of Aquitaine, the count of Toulouse, and the duke of Burgundy. The powerful counts of Anjou were not called peers because they were considered vassals of the Capetian king in his capacity of duke of France, the title held by the family before its elevation to the throne, but they were far more important than the vassals of the royal demesne in the De de France such as the lords of Couey and Montmorency.
The lord of the village had his demesne, strips in the fields that his tenants cultivated for him. The villagers plowed the demesne, sowed it, harvested the crops, and stored them in the lord's barns. The demesne might occupy as much a1:1 a third of the arable land, but was usually rather less. Then t he villagers paid the lord a percentage of the crops grown on their own strips. The lord considered that he owned the common resources of the village and charged his tenants for their use. Thus the villager paid a rent in pigs for feeding his swine in the woodlands and in cheese for having his cattle in the common pasture.
A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years by Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin