By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311
618, 61g, 635, 678, 674. On the background, see Grousset, Histoire des croisades, II, chap. VIII; Runciman, Crusades, II, chap. Ii; Cahen, Syrie du nord, pp. 357, 488-489, 50z-5o3; Chalandon, Domination normande, II, 124-125; and volume I of the present work, chapter XIII, pp. 434-446. Roger also claimed he was entitled to Antioch because he had conquered Bohemond's Italian fiefs ceded to duke William. See Caspar, Roger II, pp. 65, 70, 79, 166. 12 Otto of Frcising, Gesta Friderici I (ed. Waitz), pp.
365-370, and Chalandon, Domination normande, II, io6-co7. Roger won the friendship of Bernard of Clairvaux by allowing Cistercian monks to settle in Sicily. See Bernardi epirtolae, nos. 207, zo8, Zog, 447 (PL, CLXXXII). The letters must be dated after the peace of Mignano, c 139, when Bernard I2 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 11 much influence on the king of France, Louis VII certainly believed that Roger would be a useful ally in the crusade. After the assembly of Ve'zelay on March 3 I, t 146, Louis began negotiations with the rulers of the countries through which his armies might pass on their way to Asia Minor or to Syria.
Ricerche sui rapporti fra Bisanzio e 1' Occidente nel secolo XII, I (Rome, 1955), is important because of extensive quotations from sources not easily available, such as the epistolarium of Wibald of Stavelot. The work sums up the results of recent studies by P. Rassow, "Zum byzantinischnormannischen Krieg, 1147-I149," Alitteilungen des Instituts fur bsterreichische Geschichtsforschung, LXII (1954), z t3-2A, and K. Heilig, Ostrom and das deutrche Reich (Stuttgart, 1951). Innocent II invested Roger and his two sons, as, respectively, king of Sicily, duke of Apulia, and prince of Capua, the titles corresponding to the original divisions of Norman Italy.
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard