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Extra info for A Kinematical Interpretation of Electromagnetism (1919)(en)(8s)

Example text

Workers in magnetic materials generally take the view that H is the “fundamental” magnetic field, which produces magnetization M in magnetic materials. The flux density B is a useful quantity primarily because changes in B generate voltages through Faraday’s law. The magnetic properties of a material are characterized not only by the magnitude and sign of M but also by the way in which M varies with H. The ratio of these two 4 Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), German mathematician was renowned for his genius in mathematics.

There are also an infinite number of nonsymmetrical minor loops, some of which are shown at fg and hk. If a specimen is being cycled on a symmetrical loop, it will always be magnetized in one direction or the other when H is reduced to zero. Demagnetization is accomplished by subjecting the sample to a series of alternating fields of slowly decreasing amplitude. In this way the induction is made to traverse smaller and smaller loops until it finally arrives at the origin (Fig. 16). This process is known as cyclic or field demagnetization.

At the center of the solenoid (x ¼ 0), this reduces to ni L pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi H ¼ C1 2 L D þ L2 ! (2:2) and, when L 2 ) D 2, to H ¼ C1 ni : L (2:3) In any solenoid, the field is highest at the center and decreases towards the ends. The field at the end of a long solenoid is just one-half of the field at the center. But the field over the middle half is quite uniform, as shown by Fig. 1. 3, at the center of an infinitely long solenoid. 13% less than that produced by an infinitely long solenoid. The field variation in the radial direction is generally negligible.

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A Kinematical Interpretation of Electromagnetism (1919)(en)(8s) by Page L.

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