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And the last point that should be mentioned is the substitution of σ by Σ to the loss of the inter ionosphere waveguide that can trap a certain type of MHD-oscillations. The ionospheric conductivity increases sharply in the auroral zones and near the equator. The high-latitude maximum is caused by precipitations of auroral particles. The integral Pedersen and Hall conductivities are larger here by an order of magnitude than those of the middle-latitude ionosphere. Geomagnetic Equator Contrary to the high latitude ionosphere where the conductivity is defined mainly by precipitations of high energy particles, the equatorial conductivity is determined by the geometry of the geomagnetic field.

E. the Ex and Ey electric components are heightindependent. Integration the equations for the currents jx , jy over height gives Jx = Σxx Ex + Σxy Ey , Jy = −Σxy Ex + Σyy Ey , where Σxx = σxx dz, Σxy = σxy dz, Σyy = are the height integrated conductivities and Jx = jx dz, Jy = jy dz are components of the surface ionospheric current. 9) 42 2 Electrodynamic Properties of Space This is a great step forward. In most of the problems we will present, we simply replace the tensor of the specific ionospheric conductivity σij (r, z) by a tensor of the integral conductivity Σij (r) that depends only on the horizontal coordinates r {x, y} .

34) are obtained from the general condition for the hydromagnetic approximation: the collision frequencies should be larger than the ion cyclotron frequencies ω ωci ν. 27) follows v e ≈ vi ≈ vn . 32). In particular, MHDapproximation in the strong magnetic field can provide correct results even in a collisionless plasma. In this case, instead of small parameter l/L controlling the applicability of hydrodynamics, a new small parameter rci /L is introduced, where rci is the Larmour radius rci = vT i /ωci .

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An Electromagnetic Hypothesis of the Kinetics of Heterogeneous Equilibrium, and of the Structure of by Harkins W. D.

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